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In this chapter we show how to use output feedback to modify the dynamics of the system through the use of observers. We introduce the concept of observability and show that if a system is observable, it is possible to recover the state from measurements of the inputs and outputs to the system. We then show how to design a controller with feedback from the observer state. A general controller with two degrees of freedom is obtained by adding feedforward. We illustrate by outlining a controller for a nonlinear system that also employs gain scheduling.
PDF (24 Jul 2020)