PID Control

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Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) control is by far the most common way of using feedback in engineering systems. In this chapter we present the basic properties of PID control and the methods for choosing the parameters of the controllers. We also analyze the effects of actuator saturation, an important feature of many feedback systems, and describe methods for compensating for it. Finally, we discuss the implementation of PID controllers as an example of how to implement feedback control systems using analog or digital computation.

Chapter contents

PDF (24 Jul 2020)

  1. Basic Control Functions
  2. Simple Controllers for Complex Systems
  3. PID Tuning
    • Ziegler--Nichols' Tuning
    • Tuning Based on the FOTD Model
    • Relay Feedback
  4. Integral Windup
    • Avoiding Windup
    • Manual Control and Tracking
    • Anti-Windup for General Controllers
  5. Implementation
    • Filtering the Derivative
    • Setpoint Weighting
    • Implementation Based on Operational Amplifiers
    • Computer Implementation
  6. Further Reading

Teaching Materials

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  • Additional Exercises

Supplemental Information